Education is the central key to the process of development and it plays a noteworthy role in achieving the Millennium Development Goals. Education is one of the powerful instruments for reducing poverty and inequality by enabling the people to use their potentials to the self-actualization level. Education is the most important prerequisite for the process of development. Many socio-political and economic barriers of development in education sector diminish its effectiveness.These barriers are lack of resources, inadequate infrastructure, lack of well designed curriculum,underinvestment in education sector, low quality teachers training and rigid socio-cultural practices. The quality of education in Pakistan is very low due to grade repetitions, low enrollment rate and high dropout rates of the students. Only attending the school is not ample but there are also other constraints related to community attitude, infrastructure development, and school management that contribute to lower the literacy rate of Pakistan. Unfortunately the literacy rate of Pakistan is lowest among other South Asian countries.
This study was designed to investigate factors that influence girls' enrollment and performance in physics in five (28%) 'traditional' national schools in Kenya. Meaningful learning of physics is the hallmark of a technologically competent workforce in science, technology and engineering. However, there is a lower performance index and enrollment of girls opting to study physics at KCSE. The factors of attitudes of students, learners' ability and teacher characteristics were found to affect enrollment and performance of girls in physics. The study showed students' attitude, learner's ability and teacher characteristics, affected girls' enrollment and performance in physics in national schools.However, the girls had better positive attitudes and performance in learner abilities in physics than the boys. The results also showed that teachers of physics in girls' national schools are effective and efficient in instructional designs. The findings of this study may be used to foster positive attitudes towards physics. The methods of physics instruction among girls may also be impacted by constructivism approaches as the results show strong preference to physics practical work.
Enrollment management (EM) has been a preoccupation among higher education institutions over the past decades. The socio-economic and technological changes have influenced student demography and students' financial capacity, which entails challenges in EM around the world. Researchers have studied a wide range of measures to manage enrollment, including measures increasing student engagement, international student numbers, non-traditional student population, diversity, recruitment, and marketing. However, research has not focused on the role of student support policies (SSPs) in EM. Therefore, this book fills the gap with insights from a case study at Loyal University, a public four-year university in the Midwest of the United States of America in 2012, about students' attitude towards SSPs when they decide to enroll in a university and retain until graduation. The findings indicate that SSPs, at a certain degree, are a catalyst for both recruitment and retention. Higher education administrators and researchers may find the data useful and helpful when they strategize and promote student enrollment at their institutions.
This book is recommended to those working to end modern day slavery where children are the victims and losers, particularly in hidden employment like domestic work in the developing countries. In Nigeria, children are recruited from rural to urban areas to work as domestic servants with false promises including child fosterage by clandestine agents. The study found that poverty among the rural families, compounded by large family size, increasing number of orphans and vulnerable children, low rate of school enrollment, poor attitude to girl child education and the growing demand for domestic workers by working class families in urban areas as the root causes of the problem. The study recommended in addition to poverty alleviation measures, a strong awareness creation to change mindset about children's exchange in the society and suggested some remedial measures for the prevention of recruitment of children for domestic work as well as rescue abused and traumatized victims now in the urban areas.
In Kenya, as students move from Form two to Form three, they are allowed to choose the combination of subjects to study for their terminal examination. Unfortunately, physics is considered to be the least chosen subject among the science subjects by girls. Available data indicates that most girls tend to avoid physics in there choices. Yet a steady stream of highly trained women scientists is needed. This publication provides information on the various factors that influence the choice between physics and other science subjects among girls. Empirical results identify factors that influence girls' choice of physics and other science subjects: parents' level of education, peer- group pressure, negative students' attitude, stereotyping of roles as masculine or feminine, cultural values and beliefs that militate against education of girls. The results derived from the study are expected to reverse the negative attitude previously held by girls towards certain science subjects and consequently increase their enrollment in boys' dorminated subjects such as physics.
Education is fundamental for an individual to lead a holistic and successful life. Regrettably, many children especially from rural background lack access to education. In 2001-2002, a flagship program to promote education for rural children in India came into being called Sarva Siksha Abhiyan (SSA). SSA provides better facilities to students like infrastructure, proper teaching/ learning materials etc. The study outlined here, was designed to find the impact of SSA in the rural schools surrounding Dindigul district, Tamil Nadu, India. The study reveals that the rural schools are indeed getting benefits from SSA and the teachers from both government and aided schools alike have a positive attitude towards SSA. The enrollment ratio has improved. But schools do lack effective implementation of SSA program especially in areas like civil works, Activity Based Training, and intervention programs for the differently abled students and ICT training for the students. This study will help the Government to refine its strategies to improve and extend the SSA programs, directing towards Universalization of Elementary Education (UEE) in rural India.
This study was designed to investigate factors that influence girls' performance in physics in (28%) national schools in Kenya, for there is a lower performance index of girls opting to study physics in high schools. The factors of attitudes of students, learners' ability, and teacher characteristics were found to affect performance of girls in physics. A survey among 228 form 2 students in 5 national schools in Kenya, as well as teachers of science and mathematics in the schools was carried out. Questionnaires were used to collect data for both teacher and student factors. In addition, an Achievement Test was used to isolate areas of misconceptions that account for poor performance of girls. The data was analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The study showed students' attitude, learner's ability and teacher characteristics, affected girls' enrollment and performance in physics. The girls had better positive attitudes and performance in learner abilities in physics than the boys. The results also showed that teachers of physics in the girls' schools are efficient in instructional designs. The results showed strong preference of girls to physics practical work.
Most Nigerian farmers are ageing. A critical challenge for sustainable agricultural and rural development in Nigeria has remained how to mobilize her large population of youths (about 45%) as active participants in the agricultural transformation process. Most Nigerian youths appears to be negatively disposed towards electing agriculture as a course of study or as a vocation. It is imperative to constantly assess students'attitudes because the link between attitude, subject enrollment, and achievement has been sustained by research. The book presents the nitty gritty of the processes involved in development, validation and standardization of semantic differential scales for measurement of students' attitude to agricultural science.Preliminary utilization of the scales indicates that the instrument validly predict students' achievement in and choice of agriculture as a course of study or vocation.The book should be especially useful to Guidance Counsellors, Science Educators, Measurement and Evaluation Trainees and Professionals, Curriculum Planners, Researchers and anyone else who may be interested in taking objective classification,selection and placement decisions about students.
In my study I have tried to identify, ACCESSING THE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT FOR CHILDREN AND YOUNG PEOPLE WITH LEARNING DIFFICULTIES AND DISABILITIES. A major policy objective of Bangladesh is to provide all children and young people with strong foundational literacy and numeric skills. However, providing appropriate literacy and numeric learning opportunities, especially for children experiencing learning difficulties, continues to be a challenge for teachers and schools. In order to, support teachers and schools, a study needs to be carried out to provide a national picture of how students with learning difficulties are supported in their literacy and numeric learning.Never the less, the research were: Assessing and analyzing the major shortfalls in existing design and implementation process of education programmes for disabled children, Assessing the effectiveness and impact of existing Inclusive Education programmes in terms of Enrollment, Repetition, Dropout and Attitude, Assessing the impact of Special versus Integrated and Inclusive Education, Identifying successful Case studies and areas/issues and possible interventions for strengthening and promoting Inclusive Education.